Sunday, October 31, 2010

Safe Ceiling And Roofing For Hospital


  • Concrete CEILING have no cracks and leaks.
  • Drop CEILING made of materials other than concrete securely fastened.
  • CEILING or LIGHT FIXTURES adequately fastened and supported.
  • Made of FIRE RESISTANT CEILING materials.
  • Underside of ARCHES, BALCONIES or OVERHANGS free from STRUCTURAL CRACKS and falling cement plasters.
  • Other fixtures such as CEILING LINER properly fastened or attached.
  • ROOFING system designed to withstand wind velocity (175-250Kph).
  • ROOFING materials completely and securely fastened, welded, riveted, or cemented.
  • ROOFING leak proof, water proof storm drainage system with adequate capacity and properly maintained.
  • ROOFING - insulated, sound proof.
  • ROOFING type of  material, slope, type of connection, condition,  thickness at least gauge 24 or 26 to be considered.
  • ROOFING regional location. ( e.g.  in  areas where always heavy rain,  it should be heavily fastened or anchored).

Friday, October 22, 2010

Site And Accessibility of Safe Hospital


  • A hospital shall be located along/ near good roads and adequate means of transportation.
  • A hospital shall be so located that it is readily, accessible to the community and reasonably free from undue noise, smoke, dust, foul door, flood, and shall not be located adjacent to railroads, freight yards, children`s playgrounds, airports, industrial plants, disposal plants.
  • The location of a hospital shall comply with all local zoning  ordinances.
  • There shall be no obstructions to the roads leading to the hospital.
  • There should be access to more than one road (alternative routes).
  • There should be separate ingress and egress routes.
  • Well paved access roads should be properly identified/labeled.
  • Directional signages are available and properly fastened.
  • Corridors, hallways and aisles must be 2.4 meters in width.
  • Use of ramps as access to second and higher floors.
  • Stairways with safe and adequately secured railings.
  • Stairway must  be at least 112 cm. wide, concrete.  Any opening in such wall shall be protected by fire doors or fixed wire glass windows.  It must have protection for vertical openings.
  • Any door in a stairway, ramp, elevator shaft, light and ventilation shaft or chute, in a stairway enclosure shall be self-closing, and shall normally be kept closed.
  • Outdoor stairs must have enclosed and protected openings.
  • Available, safe and well lighted parking lots.
  • Available covered walk way, to interconnect service areas.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Fire Safety of Hospitals.


This article is base on manual guidelines provided during the workshop conducted at MOH with a topic on ``Hospitals Should Be Safe From Disasters - Reduce Risk, Protect Healh Facilities, Save Lives.`` by the Partnership between the Department of Health, World Health Organization, and other members of the sector in Philippine.
    • Should be  fire resistive, non-combustible construction materials.  Reinforced concrete, concrete products, steel/ metal products, glass, cement board, gypsum boards.
    • As much as possible, provision of ceiling is not recommended.  This is due to the fact that ceiling serves as hiding place for rats that gnaws the electrical system and where waste combustible materials are accumulated.  Any concealed space between the ceiling and the floor or roof above shall be fire proof for the full depth of the space along the line of support of the floor or roof structural members.
  • DOORS:
    • All doors facing hallways/ corridors should be made of fire resisitive materials with self-closing mechanism or equipped with automatic door closer.  Doors should be kept closed but not locked.
    • Shall be made of fire resistive materials at least 2 hour fire rating, self-closing  with panic hardware and swinging to the direction of exit travel.  Components should conform to accepted standards and/ or recognized fire test laboratory.  Should be maintained closed but not locked.  Edges should be  suitably sealed, provided with fire resistive door strip and smoke stoppers as protection against smoke, heat and fire.  Doors shall have an adequate opening (width and height) that can accomodate bed lying patients in case of fire or emergencies.  Power assisted door shall be easily operable manually to permit exit travel in case of power failure.
    • Interior walls, partitions on rooms and corridors/ hallways shall reach slab to slab without openings.  Pipe penetrations should be suitably sealed with concrete plastering or approved fire resistive sealant/ collars/ pillows.
    • No openings/ windows shall be made on all walls along corridors/ hallways.  Only door openings are allowed provided it is fire resistive door and with self-closing mechanism.
    • Shall be protected with at least 4 hours fire resistive construction materials.  Openings shall be provided with self-closing, fire resistive doors/ covers. (e.g. Dumb waiter, garbage chute, linen chute, lifter).
    • Pipe penetration against walls and floors shall be suitably sealed with concrete plastering or approved fire resistive sealant/ collars/ pillows.
    • Fire exit doors shall be at least 2 hour fire resistive, exit swinging self-closing with panic hardware.  Door components should conform to accepted standards or recognized fire test laboratory.
    • Shall be protected with approved, pre-designed and engineered automatic fire sprinkler system.
      • Shall be located preferably on rooms/ areas on the ground floor or street level due to the incapacity of the patients for self-evacuation and the need  for life support system/s equipment.
    • The building exit sign should be of approved type and strategically located.  Proper exit marking should be provided in order to assist occupants, patients especially visitors that are not familiar where exits/ fire exits are located.
    • Signs/ signage shall be made in accordance with the Fire Code Regulations, easily readable from farthest area.  Corner points should be provided with directional arrow to where exits/ fire exits are.
    • Rooms shall be provided with FIRE EXIT EVACUATION FLOOR PLAN showing exit routes of the building, to be prominently displayed on doors inside rooms.
    • Rooms, hallways, corridors, stairs, fire exit stairs, lobbies, exit discharge areas and other exit ways shall be provided with portable AC/DC emergency lighting.
    • Generators should be equipped with automatic transfer switch with less than ten (10) seconds delay on transfer to automatic operation.
    • Automatic fire suppression system (Fire Sprinkler System) shall be provided throughout the building (two storey and above).  Shall be approved with internationally recognized or accepted standard, so installed and continuously maintained in reliable operating condition as to provided complete coverage for all portions of the premises protected.  It must also protect all floor spaces including spaces in every closet and concealed spaces and plenums of certain configuration and construction - particularly where combustible materials are located such as exposed electrical wiring, combustible duct work, and combustible sound/ thermal insulation.
    • The system shall be provided with adequate and reliable water supplies as approved by the Bureau of Fire Protection.
    • The system shall be provided with a water flow alarm device and interconnected to a fire alarm system and to the control room of the building.
    • The system shall be maintained with approved facilities to ensure that it is properly operating.  It shall be electrically connected to a continuously  manned control station or to a fire department headquarters to give automatic notice of any closed water valve or other condition that might interfere with the operation of the system, including but limited to flow of water in the system due to fire or other cause.  Such facilities shall provide  for  immediate alarm to the fire department in case of fire or suspected fire, for appropriate immediate action to restore the sprinkler system to operative condition.
    • Shall be Underwriters Labs/ Factory Mutual (NFPA 2001) listed/ accredited.
    • At least 75.0 horsepower on low to medium rise buildings.  Capacity should be increased if it involves protestion of high rise or large scale buildings.
    • Fire pumps shall be approved and shall deliver not less that the required water flow  and pressure.  Such pumps shall be supplied with adequate power source and shall be automatic in operation.
    • Each wet standpipe outlet shall be supplied with a hose not less than thirty eight (38) mm in diameter.  Such hose shall be equipped with approved variable type nozzle.  An approved hose reel rack or cabinet shall be provided and shall be located so as to make it accessible.  The hose reel rack or cabinet shall be recessed to the wall or protected by suitable cabinets.
    • Every building shall have an electrically supervised and maintained automatic fire detection and alarm system capable of being manually operated in accordance with Fire Code.  It shall be installed with provision for connection to the nearest Fire Service Station in the locality.  Internal audible and visual alarm device shall be provided.  Pre signal systems shall not be permitted in institutional occupancies.
    • The system shall be installed in all corridors of hospitals, nursing homes, residential custodial care facilities in accordance with the applicable standards of NFPA 2001 Pamphlet No. 71 or 72, but in no case smoke detectors be spaced further apart than nine (9) meters on center or more than four and six-tenths (4.6) meters from any wall  and electrically inter-connected to the fire alarm system.
    • An approved and appropriate type of portable and wheeled type fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with the Fire Code.
      • Dietary, canteen, laboratory, laundry/linen, sterilization, carpentry shops, woodworking shops, motor pools, cooking/heating/burning areas where open flames are being used, other high hazard rooms where materials are highly flammable, combustible, explosive, radio active, corrosive chemicals, compressed air/ oxygen or gases are kept or stored shall be located on separate areas or buildings.  They shall be constructed of fire resistive construction materials.  Approved and appropriate type of automatic and manual fire suppression equipment, fire detection and alarm system shall also be provided and interconnected with the fire alarm system of the building.
      • LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) cylinders/ tanks:
        • They shall be kept or stored outside building premises with proper concrete segregation, ventilation, cooling/ fire suppression system and be provided with a device that will be automatically shut-off the supply of gas in case of leakage or other troubles and gas leak detector with alarm interconnected to the fire alarm system of the building.
    • Shall be located away from any building.  Shall not be constructed on basement or under any building and shall be maintained properly.
  • FIRE COATS, HELMETS, BOOTS, and other Fire Fighting equipment.
    • Members of the fire brigade team shall be provided with proven safe fire coats, helmets, boots, hand gloves while conducting rescue or fire and other emergency operations.  Gears and other equipment such as but not limited to ropes, ceiling hooks, spare fire hoses, sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers, self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and tanks, flashlights with fresh batteries, two-way radios with chargers, building plans/ floor plans shall be kept in an approved emergency bin or cabinet and be used exclusively during fire/ emergencies only.
    • The plans, design or specifications of the proposed building to be constructed, repaired, renovated, altered, modified and changed in use shall be referred also to other proper local government agency/ unit for their comment and recommendation as follows:
      • City Building Official as to National Building Code requirements .
      • City/ Municipal Fire Marshal as to Fire Code requirement .
      • City Electrician/ Electrical Division as to Electrical Code.
      • Engineering/ Industrial Safety Division as to Mechanical Code.
      • Sanitary/ Plumbing Official as to Sanitary Code.
      • Environmental or Pollution Management Office as environment protection and management requirements.
      • Other regulating and safety enforcement agencies/ units.
    • Note: 
      • Even government projects are not exempted from securing the proper permits/ certificates. Payment of fees due may be exempted.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Darussalam Blogger: Health

Darussalam Blogger: Health: "PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE(Ref: Prof. Lester Packer - University of California) Courses in many medical schools all over the world conce..."

Prevention is better than cure

(Ref: Prof. Lester Packer - University of California)

Courses in many medical schools all over the world concentrate on how to cure the sick, while there are a few courses that teach how to maintain good health and prevent illness.

True or not?

A lot of people now realize the importance of preventive medicine.  Increasing awareness that can improve  defence against disease and by proper nutrition.

Is Vitamin E really effective in slowing down the ageing process ?

Scientific evidences show that Vitamin E protects against ageing and chronic and degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and cataracts.  Vitamin C and E are now will known as anti-oxidants.  A lack of these vitamins cause the progress of diseases linked with age.  If the diet is included sufficiently the progress will be slower.

How early should one start taking Vitamin E ?

The earlier the better.  An average of 400mg perday is sufficient.
Vitamin E is found in plant materials including green and yellow leafy vegetables.  It is also found in certain plant oils like palm oil, coconut oil, barley oil and rice oil.  We don`t expect to live longer than we otherwise would, but at least to live better and more active life. Two components found on palm oil Vitamin E  i.e. tocotrienols and tocopherols are dietary essentials whose main function is to act as anti-oxidants that is, components that protect others from oxidation.  Of the two components tocotrienols seems more effective than tocopherols.

Free radicals are formed in the body during normal metabolic processes leading to the oxidation of the fatty acid component on the cell membrane.  The oxidative damage may consequently impair the proper functioning of these cells.

Vitamin E acts as an anti-oxidant, scavenging the free radicals and is hence hypothesised to play a protective role against cellular ageing atherosclerosis and cancer.

Skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer and the most common malignant cancer.  The incidence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the earth correlates with increased malignant and non-malignant melanoma.

The multi-step process of carcinogenesis and that molecular damage due to UV irradiation may be reduced by Vitamin E.  Vitamin E is also an important components of the lung`s defence against the injurious effects of smog,smoke and smoking.

Darussalam Blogger: Fire Safety of Hospitals.

Darussalam Blogger: Fire Safety of Hospitals.: "FIRE SAFETY OF HOSPITALS This article is base on manual guidelines provided during the workshop conducted at MOH with a topic on ``Hospitals..."